Deadline for Comment and Objections
Time & Location
About the Event
Musina Makhado Special Economic Zone (EMSEZ) is a Chinese funded project encompassing approximately 8000 hectares in Limpopo, and will comprise of numerous industrial projects (including 3300MW coal fired power station, numerous mines and metallurgical industries, ferrochrome industry, steel industry, vanadium plant, cement plant, manganese plant, and many others).
According to the report, EMSEZ has a metallurgical (site 2) and logistics (site 1) cluster. It consists of two sites, namely one at Antonvilla(Site1) in Musina, where logistics and manufacturing will form the main component, and the other approximately 50km to the south of Musina, referred to as the Musina‐Makhado/Bokmakierie/southern or designated SEZsite (Site2), that focus on the metallurgical and energy cluster. The DEIR deals specifically with the Makhado/Bokmakierie(Site2) of the Musina‐Makhado Special Economic Zone(SEZ), the Southern SEZ site, in relation to the clearance of the land only, and each facility will submit a separate EIA application for its construction and operation.
Here are some information of interest taken from the DEIR:
- WATER: A critical risk factor is the long‐term availability of water as the region is severely water strained. The two main sources of water in the area are the Limpopo River (Sand and Nzhelele catchment, and the Nzhelele Dam. The bulk water demand for the fully developed EMSEZ southern site is currently estimated at 13910.5km3 for the 9‐year construction period. An additional possible alternative water source is Zhovhe dam on Mzingwane River (of Beitbridge water treatment plant/Thuli Moswa Dam); Runde (Tugwi-Mkosi Dam); Save (Chodo-Chitowe Dam);
- WETLANDS: Multiple wetlands are located across the eight farms, including seeps, flats, valley‐bottom wetlands and channeled valley‐bottom wetlands. Limited desktop study. Major impact, no room for mitigation, only offsets;
- PROTECTED AREAS: UNESCO Vhembe Biosphere Reserve; National Parks(Kruger national Park, Mapungupwe national Park); Formal Protected Areas (Baobab Protected Reserve; Musina, Honnet, Nwanedi, Nzhelele, Happy Rest and Langjan Nature Reserve; Informal Protected Areas; National Protected Areas Expansion Strategy(NPAES) Focus Areas (Blouberg Langjan National Protected Areas); and Private Nature Reserves (Averal, Nzhlelele); Critical Biodiversity area 2; Ecological Corridor Network; Important Bird Area nearby;
- CLIMATE CHANGE: High risk: estimated 1 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent emission over its lifetime, which is about 10-16% of SA’s total carbon budget annually (figures vary in various pages of the report). Mitigation will not alter the impact the GHG on climate change impacts in terms of probability, extent or duration of the risks. Some of the threats include temperature increase related crop loss – food insecurity for the communities in the region, operation of SEZ due to lack of water; floods; endemic biota decline; worsen socio-economic impacts for the Vhembe community;
- HERITAGE: stone age materials; burial sites;
- FARMING: potential impact to 689000ha agricultural and grazing land due from water competition, pollution, air pollution, water contamination;
- AIR QUALITY: possible pollution from PM, Manganese, Hexavalent Chromium, Sulphur Dioxide, Hydrogen Sulphide, Carbon Dioxidde, Oxides of Nitrogen;
- TOURISM AND FOOD SECURITY: project may impact tourism (many nature reserves in the area) in the region due noise, aesthetics, pollution from various industries in the region etc. Loss of agricultural land due to more mine prospectors coming into the region;