A critical risk factor is the long‐term availability of water as the region is severely water strained. The two main sources of water in the area are the Limpopo River (Sand and Nzhelele catchment, and the Nzhelele Dam. The bulk water demand for the fully developed EMSEZ southern site is currently estimated at 13910.5km3 for the 9‐year construction period. An additional possible alternative water source is Zhovhe dam on Mzingwane River (of Beitbridge water treatment plant/Thuli Moswa Dam); Runde (Tugwi-Mkosi Dam); Save (Chodo-Chitowe Dam);
Some Excellent Background
1. Catchment management.
This is important to understand longer term strategy to protect water resources in the Limpopo area
2. Critical analysis of the water needs
Here are two links to a critical analysis of the water and some broader issues for the Makhado Complex plans completed earlier this year, which may be useful.
The one is a report for FES, available HERE >>
The other is a webinar talking through the report at